A fresh take on risk and valuation
We keep moving forward, opening
new doors and doing new things,
because we are curious, and curiosity keeps
leading us down new paths.
15.07.2022
A First Look at Stress Testing Climate Change Risk For Insurers

On 27 January 2022, the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA) published a consultation paper on the methodological principles of developing bottom-up stress tests for climate change risks focusing on the design and calibration of stress tests for climate change risks as part of the future supervisory testing framework. This article examines EIOPA's methodological considerations outlined in this paper.

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07.07.2022
Credit Spread Risk in The Banking Book

In December 2021, European Banking Authority published three consultation papers, including the guidelines on Interest Rate Risk in Banking Book (IRRBB) and Credit Spread Risk in The Banking Book (CSRBB), the regulatory technical standards (RTS) on the supervisory outlier test (SOT) and the RTS on the standardised approach (SA) and the simplified standardised approach (S-SA) for the economic value of equity (EVE) and the net interest income (NII). The 4-month-long consultation period finished on the 4th of April 2022. This article provides an overview of the first of the three consultation papers, the guidelines on CSRBB and discusses the methodology for the monitoring and assessment of CSRBB.

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30.05.2022
SA-CCR: The New Standardised Approach to Counterparty Credit Risk

With the SA-CCR differing substantially from the prior non-internal methods, there is significant work to be done by institutions to comply with the new regulatory requirements while minimizing the EAD (and by extension RWA) impacts on their derivative portfolios. The main effects can be split into those of a more operational versus strategic nature. On the operational side, the main challenges and considerations relate to the implementation and streamlining of the SA-CCR calculations

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25.04.2022
A deep dive on CRR III changes and the impact on credit risk modelling

The reforms will force banks to examine capital use throughout their whole operation and maybe revise their pricing and product offerings as a result. As a result, the new framework will impact company strategy and business strategies. The BCBS anticipates that this will result in a capital reallocation within the system. Larger banks will need to concentrate on capital floors, but smaller banks will need to carefully assess what infrastructure and technology changes are required to handle the greater amount and granularity of data required by the most advanced standardised techniques.

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04.04.2022
Actuarial Data Science: Understand your risk factors thanks to Generalised Linear Models and Regularisation techniques

We intend to raise the awareness on how Data Science can be leveraged on in the context of insurance pricing and how to go from theory to practice, from scripting to deploying your model. This article is the first of a series of four articles on this topic. ​Understanding the risk factors and their impacts on the pricing is essential in risk assessment, particularly in a competitive market. In this process, generalised linear models combined with regularisation techniques can be useful. Moreover, GLMs help to understand what impacts your policy's pure premium so the product managers and brokers can effortlessly understand how the model works.

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25.03.2022
EBA publishes binding standards on Pillar 3 disclosures on ESG risks

On January 24th 2022, the EBA published its final draft implementing technical standards on Pillar 3 disclosures for Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) risks. This article aims to summarise, contextualise, and critically assess the disclosures' essential aspects. It situates the disclosures within the larger spectrum of comparable disclosures of environmentally sustainable economic activities presented by other governing bodies in the EU. It discusses the different templates included and the timeline provided by the EBA for completing each set of disclosures. It offers preliminary methodological recommendations on key aspects of the disclosures based on Finalyse's internal requirements assessment. Eventually, it provides some general concluding remarks on Banks' challenges related to the disclosure of ESG risks.

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17.03.2022
The EU Securitisation Framework: A Bank and Insurer Perspective

Effective January 1st, 2019, the EU securitisation market has undergone a substantial overhaul in terms of the overall regulatory framework that governs the securitisation activities of the different players in the Member States. The overhaul represents a major milestone in the EU’s Capital Markets Union (CMU) agenda and includes several interrelated and complementary regulations. This article provides a general overview of the EU Securitisation Framework, highlighting its most key components and considerations from the perspective of banks and (re)insurers subject to the new requirements.

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03.03.2022
The new Insurance Recovery and Resolution Directive - what you need to know

We welcome the proposal by the EU to create a harmonised resolution regime via an Insurers Recovery and Resolution Directive. This will end the fragmented landscape of national resolution legislation and create a level playing field amongst EU member states. The IRRD will hopefully improve policy holder’s and claimant’s protection and reduce the amount of insurance companies bailed out by taxpayers. However, the Directive will create an additional administrative burden for insurers, so insurers will need to prepare accordingly for this Directive's extra work.

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03.01.2022
CRR 3 and Banking Package 2021 – The Winter’s Tale

On the 27th of October 2021 the European Commission has released its proposal of a new banking package, that (among other things) implements the first pillar of Basel IV into the banking regulation. This package introduces a big change to the European Banking industry. The combination of changes to the credit risk (which is the main risk driver in the EU), and output floor will be particularly strongly felt across the EU.The new requirements are computationally difficult and institutionally challenging. They require variety of tools and data all of which will be costly. The current release is a Commission proposal only and still needs to go through the council and the parliament before its release in the official Journal of the EU. However, it is not expected to undergo very many additional changes and its adoption should be smooth.

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10.12.2021
Unveiling the clockwork of the 2022 ECB Climate Stress Test

The article walks the reader through the different modules of the 2022 ECB Climate Stress Test. While we still find ourselves at the dawn of introducing climate risk into the existing risk management frameworks, the ECB continues to pave the way for financial institutions. In the methodology paper released in October 2021, the regulator has showcased their expectations for the upcoming bottom-up stress test. By elegantly side-stepping the intricacies of advanced climate modelling, financial institutions are enabled to start their climate stress testing journey while laying strong foundations for more advanced approaches in future exercises.

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